Les cinq pays africains où l’emploi est le plus menacé par la robotisation

14 Avr 2017
2527 times

L'automatisation du travail qui devrait remplacer jusqu'à 50% des métiers actuels ne laissera pas le continent africain indemne.

Cinq pays africains sont tout particulièrement concernés par l’essor de la robotisation qui rendra automatisables jusqu’à 50% des métiers actuels, selon une étude du cabinet McKinsey récemment parue dans la revue scientifique Harvard Business Review.

« Aujourd’hui, près de la moitié des activités pour lesquelles des gens sont payés dans l’économie globale ont le potentiel pour être automatisés via une technologie adaptée », écrivent les trois co-auteurs.

Pour réaliser cette étude, le cabinet McKinsey a étudié les 46 pays sur près de 200 qui représentent à eux tous 80% de la main d’oeuvre globale. Dans le monde, le pourcentage d’activités automatisables varie de 41,1% pour le Koweït à 55% pour le Japon, pour la projection la plus haute.

Sur le continent africain, cinq pays se détachent des autres : le Kenya (51,9%), suivi du Maroc (50,9%) puis de l’Égypte (48,7%), du Nigeria (45,7%) et de l’Afrique du Sud (41%).

Rester compétitif

Le cabinet McKinsey divise les pays étudiés en trois catégories. Viennent d’abord les économies développées à la population vieillissante, comme la France ou les États-Unis. Dans leur cas, l’automatisation devrait leur fournir la hausse de productivité nécessaire pour tirer leur croissance économique vers le haut.

Dans les pays émergents dont la population est également vieillissante, comme le Brésil, la Chine ou la Russie, l’automatisation doit seulement permettre de maintenir le PIB par tête actuel.

Enfin, arrivent les économies émergentes avec une population jeune, catégorie dans laquelle on retrouve notamment l’Afrique du Sud et le Nigeria. Dans ces derniers pays, la croissance continue de la population en âge de travailler pourrait soutenir le maintien actuel du PIB par tête, selon le cabinet McKinsey.

Cependant, « en raison de leurs attentes élevées en termes de croissance, et afin de rester compétitifs à l’échelle mondiale, l’automatisation ainsi que des mesures d’accroissement de la productivité seront nécessaires pour soutenir leur développement économique », ajoutent les auteurs sans préciser la nature exacte de ces mesures. ... Retrouver l'article sur Jeune Afrique

 

© Jeune Afrique

 

Last modified on lundi, 17 avril 2017 22:24
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